There are 34 consonants in Standard Hausa. The f-sound is rare before the vowels “o” and “u” even in “Kano” Hausa. In Hausa, “f” is a bilabial sound. Post author By ; Post date September 25, 2020; ... WAW], ‍ُو [U+064F ARABIC DAMMA + U+0648 ARABIC LETTER WAW], عٜـ [U+0639 ARABIC LETTER AIN + U+065C ARABIC VOWEL SIGN DOT BELOW]. They require movement of the glottis during pronunciation and have a … There are also many dialectal differences in pronunciation of individual words, e.g. In scholarly transcriptions of Hausa, accent marks indicate tone, which may be high (acute), low (grave), or falling (circumflex). Hausa has many words which contain geminate or “doubled” consonants. Hausa is recognized as an indigenous national language in the constitutions of both Nigeria and Niger. The tone is also marked on the vowel, as shown above. NOW 50% OFF! Variations in tone, vocalic, and consonantal forms are illustrated by the constructions associated with the root for ‘bush cow,’ *Square root of√ ɓkn (the asterisk * denotes a reconstructed term). Aa Ee Ii Oo Uu Depending on the word and blend, these five vowels can make up about 21 unique sounds. In the pairs of words below, concentrate on the difference between the simple consonant and its geminate counterpart. Also, the number of vowel insertion depends on the number of consonants in the coposition. Linguists refer to these as “glottalized” sounds because the glottis (basically, the space between the vocal cords) is constricted when one pronounces these sounds. b) palatalized and labialized velars alongside simple ones. Updates? Hausa contains 26 letters (consonants and vowels). Words are built from vowels (a, e, i, o, u) and consonants (the rest of the alphabet). Speakers of these languages pronounce “f” by bringing the lower lip next to the upper teeth (producing a “labio-dental” sound). However, it remains as /k/ in the complex plural form ɓák-àa-n-ée, which includes the infix -aa- between the final and prefinal consonants, plus the suffix -ee-. This section mentions only general differences in the way certain consonants are pronounced. Tone is not marked in Hausa orthography. See notes on the pronunciation of f. All native speakers of Hausa have the sounds ky and gy (palatalized “k” and “g” respectively) in their speech. (a) Consonants, Vowels and Syllable Structure: (Furucin bakake da wasula da kirar gaba) – their production in terms of place, manner and status of glotis e.g. Compare the glottalized sounds with their non-glottalized counterparts by clicking on the words in red below: Can you hear the differences between the glottalized and the non-glottalized consonants? Due to the shape of the syllable types in Yoruba, there are no consonant-final words and therefore, there are no closed syllables in the language. Contrast má-hàif-íi ‘father’ with má-háif-ìyáa ‘mother,’ má-hàif-áa ‘parents,’ and má-háif-áa ‘birthplace, womb.’ Note that the words for ‘parents’ and ‘womb’ differ only in the tone melody across the word: H-L-H versus H-H-H. WAEC Hausa Language Syllabus 2020 is Out…The Hausa Language 2020/2021. (Gurbi da yanayi da matsayin makwallato na furucinsu misali ’yan lebba da ’yan hanci da mai ziza ko maras ziza) bilabials, nasals, voice and voiceless sounds. The second syllable type in Yoruba is a consonant and a vowel; this is the basic shape of simple verbs in the language. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). /kʷoːɽaː/ (‘ringworm’). Since about 1912, Hausa has also been written in a standardized orthography called boko, originally meaning “sham” or “deceit,” that is based on the Latin alphabet (with the addition of modified letters that represent glottalized consonants). Derivational extensions modify the meaning of the verb root. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Hausa is a tonal language. Total number of sounds: 52 3. New words can be created from both nouns and verbs through a process known as derivation. The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin script.It was devised by the International Phonetic Association in the late 19th century as a standardized representation of the sounds of spoken language. Their tradition of long-distance commerce and pilgrimages to the Holy Cities of Islam has carried their language to almost all major cities in West, North, Central, and Northeast Africa. So-called Standard Hausa is based on the pan-dialectal koine of Kano (Nigeria), which is the biggest commercial centre in Hausaland. In addition to speakers of some languages other than Hausa in Nigeria and Niger, the pronunciations of ky and gydescribed here are a feature typical of Ghanian Hausa, a variety of Hausa which has become the native language of numerous Ghanians. The fifth combines glottal stop with “y”. Some dialects do not have an f sound at all. Vowel sounds: There are only five vowels in the American English language. the air is “ejected” or forced out with a “squeezed” sound. In the inventory, some consonants are not found in English. /CVCC/→ vowel epenthesis→ [CVC.CV] or … In these examples, the singular form has the tone pattern High-High (H-H), while the complex plural form has the tone pattern High-Low-High (H-L-H), which always occurs with this plural formation type. There are two major dialect areas: the northwestern area, comprising most of the dialects spoken in Niger (Kurfeyanci around Filinguey, Aderanci around Tahoua, Arewanci around Dogondouchi, Tibiranci around Maradi, and Damagaranci around Zinder) plus those of Sokoto (Sakkwatanci) and Katsina (Katsinanci) in Nigeria; and the eastern area, with Kano (Kananci), Zaria (Zazzanci), and Bauchi (Guddiranci) as prominent urban agglomerations with their own dialectal variants. Starts with h, ends with a, two consonants, three vowels and two syllables. This cannot possibly be the case. There are no consonant clusters. ‘balls of millet flour used for making gruel’ The sounds f and h are closely related in Hausa. M & N as “vowels” Also, sometimes the letters “m” and “n” can be treated as vowels in Igbo. Here is a chart of all the Musa consonants used for Hausa: And here are the vowels (using د as "chair" in Ajami): In Musa, we write the long vowels by suffixing a Long Mark to the corresponding short vowel. Test yourself! Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. The third and final syllable type in Yoruba is the syllabic nasal (see above). Author of. Hausa Phonology. Nouns are marked for both number (singular or plural) and gender (masculine or feminine, which are marked only in the singular). For some Hausa speakers, the constriction of the lips is so tight that “f” sounds very much like English “p”. Since the colonial period, English (in Nigeria) and French (in Niger) have competed with Arabic as major sources of Hausa lexical innovation. Grave and acute accents are typically used for representing tones. ALL Hausa speakers in this region have the zh pronunciation of “j”, whereas the number of Hausa speakers who knew French or even had daily contact with the French language by the time of independence in 1960 was relatively small. https://www.britannica.com/topic/Hausa-language. Consonant clusters do not exist in Igbo language (meaning that two consonants cannot follow each other). with the laryngealized consonants (6, d) in Hausa? The “doubled” tap/trill is heard as a strong trill, whereas the “doubled” retroflex flap begins as a prolonged “errr” sound, something like the “r” in American English ‘bird’, and ends with the tongue flap. See the section on the two r’s of Hausa above for examples of single and geminate “r’s”): Hausa has four consonants which usually alternate in pronunciation depending on the vowel that follows them. loanwords in Hausa motivate vowel epenthesis either once or twice, depending on the forms of words; i.e. Learn about the consonants and vowels with the consonants and vowels song made for kids. This alternation is referred to by linguists as palatalization, that is the change of a sound to its “palatal” counterpart when occurring before the vowels i or e, which involve raising the tongue toward the palate. The representation with “zh” in the “NIGERIEN” examples shows the pronunciation. Danish. These are produced by holding the tongue and/or lips in the position of the consonant for a longer period of time than for the corresponding simple consonants. Britannica Kids Holiday Bundle! The home territories of the Hausa people lie on both sides of the border between Niger, where about one-half of the population speaks Hausa as a first language, and Nigeria, where about one-fifth of the population speaks it as a first language. In transcriptions of Hausa, accent marks indicate tone, which may be high or rising , low or falling , or even . The spellings used in Duwai but not in Hausa are the following: ”: The vowel “”” is the same letter and represents the same sound as heard in Kanuri b”la ‘town’ or k”ske ‘easy’.2 This vowel is extemely common in Duwai, appearing in such words as k m ‘you [speaking to a woman]’, k … There are also many special implosive and explosive consonants used in Hausa that may have to learned by ear, but are completely comprehensible without mastering. In the standard Romanized Hausa writing system, there are just five alphabetic symbols representing vowels: a , e , i, o , u. An early milestone in Hausa studies was the 1934 publication of a dictionary compiled by the Rev. da , i.e. Listen to the difference between the two r‘s by clicking on the words in red below: Not all Hausa speakers distinguish the two r‘s in their speech. I'm providing the sound so that you can hear the pronunciation of the characters. Hausa has 23 to 25 consonant sounds, depending on the speaker. The five long vowels occupy roughly the five canonical vowel positions [i, e, a, o, u]. If you follow everything provided in this page, you will be able to read, write and pronounce the Hausa letters quickly and easily. Vowels and consonants. Linguists refer to these as “glottalized” sounds because the glottis (basically, the space between the vocal cords) is constricted when one pronounces these sounds. Note the variation of the second consonant in the following words depending on the vowel which follows the consonant. 1. Bargery; it had about 40,000 entries and demonstrated the remarkable number of loanwords from Arabic, Kanuri (a Nilo-Saharan language), and Tamajaq (the Amazigh language spoken by the Tuareg). For instance, the verb stem haif- ‘to procreate, beget, give birth’ can yield the formation of agentive and locative nouns by means of a prefix má-, different vocalic endings, and diagnostic tone patterns. Some speakers of other languages who use Hausa as a second language pronounce ky as “c” and gy as “j”. From the point of view of European languages, Hausa has five unusual consonant sounds. disyllabic or monosyllabic. Thus, English words which have “f” before “o” are pronounced with “h” instead when they come into Hausa, and words in Hausa which have f in one form may have h in other forms if the consonant comes before “o” or “u”. Tones. Hausa morphology is characterized by complex alternations of sound and tone sequences. bilabials, nasals, voice and voiceless sounds. ... Syllable Structure – the way consonants and vowels combine in syllable. That is, it makes a difference in Hausa whether one pronounces a vowel as relatively long or short. Click on the words in red to hear the Hausa pronunciation of the “f” sound, then say a word with an English “f” to see if you can hear the difference. It belongs to the Western branch of the Chadic language superfamily within the Afro-Asiatic language phylum. Speakers who do not distinguish the two r‘s invariably use the tap/trill variant. air is sucked inward as the sound is produced, the other two are ejective, i.e. Syntax. 32 consonants, 5 vowels and 2 dipthongs; Phonemes /f/ and /p/ are not differentiated. hausa consonants with examples. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Some other Chadic languages, including some that had fairly large numbers…. Songhai is the second most…, Hausa, a West Chadic language, is one of the major lingua francas of Africa on the national and international level; approximately 40–50 million people speak it as either a first or a second language. In scholarly transcriptions of Hausa, accent marks indicate tone, which may be high (acute), low (grave), or falling (circumflex). Two of the glottalized sounds are implosive, i.e. The basic word order is subject–verb–object (SVO). A large percentage of the inhabitants of Niger understand Hausa, which possesses an abundant literature that has been printed in Latin characters in Nigeria. The Hausa are predominantly Muslim. Vowels: 11 These verb stems may further change their form according to syntactic environment; for instance, the grade-2 verb yànkáa ‘to cut piece off’ occurs in four different “forms” (usually referred to as A-, B-, C-, and D-forms) depending on whether and which type of an object follows. air is sucked inward as the sound is produced, the other two … Hausa is a tone language, a classification in which pitch differences add as much to the meaning of a word as do consonants and vowels. Consonants: 20 . The glottalic consonants are realized as implosives (ɓ, ɗ), ejectives (kʼ, kʼʷ,kʼj, sʼ) and a glottalized glide (ʼj). The standard Hausa orthography does not distinguish the two types of r. On this Web page, when we want to show the distinction in writing, we will write the tap/trill with a tilda above the “r” and leave the retroflex flapunmarked. However, in pronunciation, each of these symbols can represent either the short or the long variant of that vowel. Hausa has only three syllable types: Consonant + Vowel (CV), Consonant + Vowel + Vowel (CVV), and Consonant + Vowel + Consonant (CVC). In this regard, Ladefoged has stated that, at least from a perceptual point of view, 'the creaky voice is most evident not during the stop closure itself but during the first part of the following vowel' (1982: 129). Like other Afro-Asiatic languages, Hausa has a rich “root and pattern” system in which “patterns” of vowels are interlaced with and provide specific meanings for consonantal “roots” (denoted by the Square root of√ symbol) that indicate a general concept. The A-form, yànkáa, is used when no object follows the verb: náa yánkàa ‘I have cut off.’ When a pronominal object follows, the B-form yànkée is used: náa yànkée shì ‘I have cut him off.’ With a nominal object following, the C-form, yànkí, is used: náa yànkí náamàn ‘I have cut the piece of meat off.’ Finally, with an indirect object following, the D-form, yánkàa, is used: náa yánkàa másà náamàn ‘I have cut off the piece of meat for him.’. Hausa has long been written using a modified Arabic alphabet called ajami. Consonants are all letters in the alphabet except for the vowels. Total number of sounds: 59 2. English consonants /p/ and /v/ maximally replaced with similar ones, [f] and [b] that exist in Hausa on the basis that former and latter segments share same phonation features. University Professor Emeritus, chairman of African Studies, Institute of African Studies, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Ger. Hausa language, the most important indigenous lingua franca in West and Central Africa, spoken as a first or second language by about 40–50 million people. Thus *yank- ‘to cut’ derives extended stems (in traditional Hausa scholarship called “verbal grades”) such as yánkàa ‘to cut up’ (grade 1), yànkáa ‘to cut piece off’ (grade 2), yánkèe ‘to cut all off’ (grade 4), yánkóo ‘to cut and bring hither’ (grade 6), and yànkú ‘to be well cut up’ (grade 7). Identifying vowels and consonant Differentiating vowels and consonant ID: 1074260 Language: English School subject: English as a Second Language (ESL) Grade/level: Grade 1 Age: 7-10 Main content: Vowels and Consonant Other contents: Add to my workbooks (1) Download file pdf Before rounded vowels, only labialized velars occur, e.g. Two of the glottalized sounds are implosive, i.e. Hence, this may be an influence of French on Hausa pronunciation. Hausa has numerous consonants due to the presence of: a) a glottalic series contrasting with the voiceless and voiced ones. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. …group is formed by the Hausa, whose language, also spoken in Nigeria, is one of the most important in western Africa. Each of its five vowels may have a low or a high tone. Lithuanian. The northern and western areas of the Hausa speaking region do not have the bilabial f-sound of the eastern and southern areas, including the Kano area. The phonemic inventory of Hausa consists of consonants and vowels. This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged. Vowels: 12. All consonants can be pronounced as simple or geminate. The Hausa sound written “f” is not pronounced like the “f” typical of European languages such as English or French. This Latin-based orthography is the one now used for education, newspapers, books, and other general purposes. Per the rules for syllable structure in Hausa, vowels are always preceded by a consonant, and where no consonant is written before a vowel in the Boko orthography that consonant is an unwritten glottal stop. In the written Hausa of Niger, words containing these sounds will usually be written as pronounced. Even in dialects like that of Kano, which do have an f sound, this sound almost never falls before “o” and is rare before “u”. Omissions? sàyí ‘to buy’), while all low-vowel verbs are intransitive Note the following: from English ‘photo’ ‘to cook’ vs. the related form ‘cooking’ ‘go’ vs. the related form‘come hither’. The c and j pronunciations thus also show up in the speech of some non-native speakers of Hausa in words where “k” and “g” come before these vowels. The vowels are 13 comprising of 5 short vowels and 5 corresponding long vowels and 3 diphthongs. In the northern parts of the Hausa-speaking area, particularly in Niger Republic, Hausa speakers pronounce the sound written “j” as zh, i.e. Hausa is a tone language , a classification in which syllable-based pitch differences add as much to the meaning of a word as do consonants and vowels. Corrections? Structure of Syllable (Tsarin gaba) Consonant + vowel (cv) – BW; the sound that the letter “s” represents in English in a word like measure. WAEC Hausa Language Syllabus 2020/2021 | See Concentrated Topics Here. The distinction between the two r‘s is particularly clear when they are pronounced as geminate or doubled. Dialectal variation, however, does not impede mutual intelligibility across the whole of Hausaland. This means that you can pronounce m or n with high or low tones. Hausa. Hausa is a 5 letter word, used as a noun, with Hausa origins, and has the letters aahsu (ahsu). The lips are brought near each other and air is blown between them. Hausa employs a 5 vowel system like Spanish (a, e, i, o, u) , and grammar is considerably easy to learn. There are several differences in the pronunciation of consonants which distinguish speakers of different regions of the Hausa speaking area. The Arabic orthography for Hausa is less standardized than the Roman orthography and has little formally published literature) Vowels Phonologically, Hausa has a 10-vowel system comprising five vowels, each with a long and a short counterpart. It is inconceivable, first, that those speakers of Hausa who knew French would systematically shift the way they pronounced “j” in their native language to a “French model”, and second, that this foreign pronunciation would spread to the speech of the vast majority of Hausa speakers who did not know French. Hausa has been taught outside Africa since 1885, when the first course was offered in Berlin. Glottalized Sounds (“hooked letters”, ts, and ‘y) From the point of view of European languages, Hausa has five unusual consonant sounds. Serious linguistic research on the language began in the mid-19th century with the works of the German missionary J.F. See Hausa Writing for discussion of special symbols in the Hausa spelling system. Today Hausa is taught on a regular basis throughout the world, mainly at universities that have a department specializing in African languages. Vowel: Long sound ... Consonant sounds: There are 21 consonants in the American English language. Consonants and vowels Consonants and vowels ID: 923848 Language: English School subject: English as a Second Language (ESL) Grade/level: 1 Age: 5-6 Main content: Consonants and vowels Other contents: english Add to my workbooks (0) Download file pdf Embed in my website or blog The many different forms of the Hausa verb are created through both derivation and inflection. See Hausa dialects for comments on the main dialect areas of Hausa country. Tone is not marked in Hausa orthography. The table below shows the correspondences in pronunciation. It has been observed that Niger is an area where French is the official language and that the letter “j” in French represents the zh sound. Schön. Tonal language with 2 level tones which are high and low and 1 contoured tone, which is falling. University of California © 2020 UC Regents. Hindustani. Hausa Alphabet Today I will teach you the Hausa alphabet. In Nigeria, because the Hausa of Kano is the written standard, these words will usually be written with “f”, the sound found in the Kano pronunciation. (a) Consonants, Vowels and Syllable Structure: (Furucin bakake da wasula da kirar gaba) - their production in terms of place, manner and status of glotis e.g. Hausa simple verbs illustrating Proto-Chadic vowel classes Note that with simple verbs of the Low-High (L-H) tone melody class, all non-low vowel verbs are transitive (e.g. Although the writing system does not show it, Hausa speakers also always pronounce “k” and “g” as ky and gyrespectively before the the vowels “i” and “e”. Hausa is a tone language, a classification in which pitch differences add as much to the meaning of a word as do consonants and vowels. In the interaction of roots and patterns, certain consonants “weaken” or change under some circumstances. (ii) What is the timing of larngealization relative to the stop closure? Consonants: 47. These words would be written with “j” in the standard writing system. G.P. Below are some of the more noticeable dialect differences in the pronunciation of consonants. the word meaning ‘marriage’ is pronounced amre, arme, or aure depending on dialect. Hausa has between 23 and 25 consonant phonemes depending on the speaker. In the singular form, ɓáunáa, the /k/ of the root weakens to become the vowel /u/. Glottalic consonants Hausa has glottalic consonants (implosives and ejectives) at four or five places of articulation (depending on the dialect). Hausa hrvatski Icelandic Igbo italiano Jawa Kiswahili ... 12 Top Vowels And Consonants Worksheets Teaching Resources. This seems to be more of an individual speaker difference than a regional dialect difference, because even within one area, such as Kano city, one finds speakers who distinguish the two r‘s and those who do not. Vowels: 32 . This means that you can pronounce m or n with high or rising, low falling. Means that you can hear the pronunciation of consonants in the coposition twice, on. 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Vowels may have a low or falling, or aure depending on the difference between the two r ‘ hausa vowels and consonants!, these five vowels in the alphabet except for the vowels “ o and! Type in Yoruba is the timing of larngealization relative to the stop closure African Studies, university of,! Hausa is recognized as an indigenous national language in the Hausa spelling system, arme, or.. … Hausa consonants with examples and low and 1 contoured tone, is! The Rev language pronounce ky as “ j ” and other general purposes mainly. Be pronounced as geminate or doubled made for kids many different forms of the glottalized sounds are implosive i.e! 1768 first Edition with your subscription and gy as “ c ” and gy as “ j ” the.. So that you can pronounce m or n with high or low tones many different forms of the more dialect... Simple consonant and its geminate counterpart under some circumstances verbs through a process known as.... Writing system individual words, e.g dialect ) these words would be written pronounced! Is also marked on the pan-dialectal koine of Kano ( Nigeria ) which... View of European languages such as English or French dialect ) be on forms! Have an f sound at all comments on the language began in the constitutions of both and... The alphabet except for the vowels “ o ” and gy as “ j ” 32 consonants, vowels! The American English language balls of millet flour used for making gruel the. Or twice, depending on the main dialect areas of Hausa country the of.

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