The most common mechanical flow meters are inserted into a pipe and use a turbine, wheel or paddle to measure velocity and then calculate volumetric flow by knowing the cross section … The minimum upstream straight pipe-run requirement is 20 pipe diameters. Dwyer's multi-jet models are economical and dry dials. These meters are available is sizes 2 in. In the reluctance pick-up, the coil is a permanent magnet and the turbine blades are made of a material attracted to magnets. Introduction to Venturi meters and tubes, @media screen and (max-width:1024px){ The lubricating characteristics of the process fluid also affect the turndown of an oval gear meter. Fill-Rite … Mechanical Flowmeter Flowmeters 396 products A liquid flow meter from Grainger can help easily monitor liquid flow rates for water, fuels, viscous fluids and more. Reciprocating piston meters are probably the oldest PD meter designs. Several manufacturers, however, use crooked rotors that only rotate in the forward direction. They are available with multiple pistons, double-acting pistons, or rotary pistons. The outputs of reluctance and inductive pick-up coils are continuous sine waves with the pulse train's frequency proportional to the flow rate. 1″ Digital Turbine Flow Meter,Gas Oil Fuel Flowmeter,Pump Flow Meter ,Diesel Fuel Flow Meter,High Accuracy,for Measure Diesel, Kerosene, Gasoline, etc. $36.59. Because pressure drop increases with the square of flow rate, reducing the meter to the next smaller size will raise the pressure drop considerably. This type of meter has a sealing disc between the measuring chamber and the register. Generally, turbine meters perform well if the Reynolds Number is greater than 4,000 and less than or equal to 20,000. Products. Each pulse represents a discrete volume of liquid. Single jet flow meter and Paddle wheel flow meter use a mechanism similar to turbine flow meters and consist of a simple impeller wheel with radial vanes, impinged upon by a single jet. These meters also can be used on residential water service and can pass limited quantities of dirt, such as pipe scale and fine (viz,-200 mesh or -74 micron) sand, but not large particle size or abrasive solids. Because of the intermittent use patterns of residential users, this corresponds to recalibrating 5/8 x 3/4 in residential water meters after they have metered 5 million gallons. Pressure and temperature limits depend on the materials of construction and can be as high as 350°F and 1,000 psig. Turbine rotation can be detected by solid state devices (reluctance, inductance, capacitive and Hall-effect pick-ups) or by mechanical sensors (gear or magnetic drives). Piston pumps deliver a fixed volume of liquid with each "out" stroke and a fixed volume enters the chamber on each "in" stroke (Figure 3-5A). View Detail. As with all positive displacement pumps, piston pumps generate a pulsating flow. This design is suited for high operating pressures (up to 5,000 psig). In addition, the Hall-effect sensor provides a signal of high amplitude (typically a 10.8-V square wave), permitting distances up to 3,000 ft. between the sensor and the electronics without amplification. Provers are repeatable on the order of 0.02%, and can operate at up to 3,000 psig and 165°F/75°C. All positive displacement flow meters operate by isolating and counting known volumes of a fluid (gas or liquid) while feeding it through the meter. Whether functioning through a relay contact or a ramp function, these features serve to minimize splashing or overfill and to accurately terminate the batch. have a small jet orifice that projects the fluid onto a Pelton wheel. Powered by, ( Figure 3-2: Click on figure to enlarge. It is not advisable to transport such a weak signal over long distances. Turbine meters also can be damaged by solids entrained in the fluid. Shunt flow meters are used in gas and steam service. Choose from our many different types of … Some industrial versions are rated to 1,500 psig. The motion of the piston is oscillatory (not rotary) since it is constrained to move in one plane. The measurement chamber is cylindrical with a partition plate separating its inlet port from its outlet. Helical gear meters can measure the flow of highly viscous fluids (from 3 to 300,000 cP), making them ideal for extremely It is therefore important to calibrate the meter for the specific fluid it is intended to measure. Turbine meters are sensitive to upstream piping geometry that can cause vortices and swirling flow. Flowmeter/totalizers display both the flow rate and the cumulative flow volume. The diameter of the rotor is very slightly less than the inside diameter of the metering chamber, and its speed of rotation is proportional to the volumetric flow rate. Equalizing the inlet and outlet pressures eliminates slip flows, leakage, and blow-by. Capacitive sensors produce a sine wave by generating an RF signal that is amplitude-modulated by the movement of the rotor blades. If the range of 10:1 is insufficient, some turbine flow- meters can provide up to 100:1 turndowns if accuracy is de-rated to 1% of full scale (FS). Diaphragm meters generally are calibrated for natural gas, which has a specific gravity of 0.6 (relative to air). Flow Meters. 20 diameters for 90° elbow, tee, filter, strainer, or thermowell; Mechanical Flow Meters. ing box, turning a geared mechanical register assembly to indicate flow rate and actuate a mechanical totalizer counter. Therefore, the distance between the pickup and associated display electronics or preamplifier must be short. Flow velocities under 1 ft/sec can be insufficient, while velocities in excess of 10 ft/sec can result in excessive wear. Nutating disc meters are available in 5/8-in to 2-in sizes. Class I turbine meters must register between 98-102% of actual rate at maximum flow when tested. Mechanical registers can be equipped with mechanical or electronic ticket-printers for inventory control and point-of-use sales. The most common type of mechanical flow meter is the classic rotameter. Gas turbine meters are available from 2" to 12" and with flow ratings up to 150,000 ft3/hr. The first causes the meter to read high, the second results in rotor damage. Rotating vane meters are regularly Check valves (or, on critical applications, double check valves) are selected to protect against backflow. ), ( They are a type of variable area meter and display flowrate using a floater that lines up with a measurement printed on the tube. They consist of an orifice in the main line and a rotor assembly in the bypass. Turbine meters should be sized so that the expected average flow is between 60% and 75% of the maximum capacity of the meter. Low-flow meters (usually smaller than 1 in.) Class II turbine meters must register between 98.5-101.5% of actual rate. In these turbine flow meters, very small magnets are embedded in the tips of the rotor blades. The frequency of the resulting pulse train is a measure of flow rate, while the total number of pulses gives the size of the batch. In the United States, the AWWA sets the standards for turbine flow meters used in water distribution systems. Because it must be nonmagnetic, the meter housing is usually made of bronze but can be made from plastic for corrosion resistance or cost savings. Digital Turbine Flow Meter,1″ Digital LCD Display with NPT Counter Gas Oil Fuel Flowmeter,Pump Flow Meter,Diesel Fuel Flow Meter for Measure Diesel, Kerosene, Gasoline. In these units, the passage of magnets embedded in the lobes of the rotating impellers is sensed by proximity switches (usually Hall-effect detectors) mounted external to the flow chamber. Lobe meters can be furnished in 2-in to 24-in line sizes. PD meter accessories include strainers, filters, air/vapor release assemblies, pulsation dampeners, temperature compensation systems, and a variety of valves to permit dribble cut-off in batching systems. This rate is then compared to the reading of the flow meter under test. The rotor and bearing materials are selected to match the process fluid and the service. Viscosity affects the accuracy and linearity of turbine meters. Mechanical Flowmeter Rs 1,000/ Piece Get Latest Price We are a well established name engaged in offering variety of Mechanical Meter to fulfill the needs of our clients. The linearity of larger meters is ±0.5% AR over a 10:1 flow range. 11 well as operating the crank mechanism for the meter register. This compensation is obtained by very large rotor hubs, very light rotor assemblies, and larger numbers of rotor blades. In the rotating lobe design, two impellers rotate in opposite directions within the ovoid housing (Figure 3-3B). Dual-rotor liquid turbines increase the operating range in small line size (under 2 in) applications. The internals of this flow meter can be removed without disconnection of the meter from the pipeline. Totalizers measure the cumulative flow volume. Under certain conditions, the pressure drop across the turbine can cause flashing or cavitation. Discussed in this chapter are various types of mechanical flow meters that measure flow using an arrangement of moving parts, either by passing isolated, known volumes of a fluid through a series of gears or chambers (positive displacement, or PD) or by means of a spinning turbine or rotor. Other types of rotary element flow meters include the propeller (impeller), shunt, and paddlewheel designs. The two rotors turn in opposite directions. in the coil (Figure 3-8A). The piston is also cylindrical and is punctured by numerous openings to allow free flow on both sides of the piston and the post (Figure 3-2A). Optical or magnetic sensors are used to encode a pulse train proportional to the rotational speed of the helical gears. In the inductance pick-up, the permanent magnet is embedded in the rotor, or the blades of the rotor are made of permanently magnetized material (Figure 3-8B). The resulting K-factor in pulses per volume unit will vary within the stated linearity specification. The flow forces the helical gears to rotate in the plane of the pipeline. The signal output from a Hall-effect sensor is a square wave pulse train, at a frequency proportional to the volumetric flowrate. (Blue) 3.3 out of 5 stars 27. Most propeller meters are equipped with mechanical registers. The calibration for the new flow rating (QN) is obtained by multiplying the meter's flow rating for natural gas (QC) by the square root of the ratio of the specific gravities of natural gas (0.6) and the new gas (SGN): High-precision gas meters are usually a hybrid combining a standard PD meter and a motor drive that eliminates the pressure drop across the meter. ), ( Cold water service units are temperature-limited to 120°F. Figure 3-5: Click on figure to enlarge. In the rotating impeller meter, very coarse gears entrap the fluid and pass a fixed volume of fluid with each rotation (Figure 3-3C). ), ( Rotameters are flow meters that measure the volumetric flow rate of liquid in a closed plastic or glass tube. Barstock turbine meters typically are linear to ±0.25% AR over a 10:1 flow range. Industrial Magmeters; Irrigation Magmeters In high-precision gas flow meter installations, high-sensitivity leaves are used to detect the pressure differential, and displacement transducers are used to measure the deflection of the leaves (Figure 3-6A). 9 Its applications and features are similar to those of the rotary vane meter. In all cases, bearings and shafts are designed to provide minimum friction and maximum resistance to wear. Standard Mechanical Flowmeters Basic vane-operated flowmeters provide inexpensive flow monitoring for processing and troubleshooting. If the process fluid viscosity is greater than 10 centipoise and the flowrate is above 20% of rated capacity, accuracy of 0.1% AR can be obtained. Flow computers are capable of linearization, automatic temperature compensation, batching, calculation of BTU content, datalogging, and storage of multiple K-factors. These transistors change their state when they are in the presence of a very low strength (on the order of 25 gauss) magnetic field. In the rotary displacement meter, a fluted central rotor operates in constant relationship with two wiper rotors in a six-phase cycle. ), ( As they rotate, a fixed volume of liquid is entrapped and then transported toward the outlet. This magnet is coupled to a mechanical register or a pulse transmitter. Gas systems are recalibrated against a bell-jar prover--a calibrated cylindrical bell, liquid sealed in a tank. Check out this selection to find flow meters that can handle petroleum products, nonpotable water and compatible chemicals for fuel-dispensing pumps and industrial flow … If the pipe is oversized (with flow velocity under 1 ft/sec), one should select a Hall-effect pick-up and use a meter smaller than the line size. Handheld Infrared Industrial Thermometers, Temperature Connectors, Panels and Block Assemblies, Temperature and Humidity and Dew Point Meters, Multi-Channel Programmable and Universal Input Data Loggers, positive displacement flow meter, read this article, Doppler Vs Transit Time Ultrasonic Meters. The helix meter is a positive displacement device that uses two radially pitched helical gears to continuously entrap the process fluid as it flows. Meters are sized so that pressure drop is below 35 psid at maximum flow rate. Standard C701 provides for two classes (Class I and Class II) of turbine flow meters. Upheld by a group of experts, we are putting forth our customers most dependable, overwhelming obligation Mechanical Fuel Flow Meters. They are the most common and economical type of water flow meters which perform flow measurement through turbine rotation with a shunt, propeller, or paddle wheel design. These meters are usually smaller (available in sizes down to 1/10-in diameter) and are used for measuring very low flows of viscous liquids. Products. That comprises volumetric meters like diaphragm meters … The turbine is suspended by a bearing between two hanger assemblies that also serve to condition the flow. The primary difference is that gases are compressible. Mechanical flowmeters measure flow by using an arrangement of moving parts, either by passing specific, known volumes of a fluid through a series of gears or chambers (in the case of positive displacement meters) or by means of a spinning turbine or rotor in an arrangement called a turbine flowmeter. Typically, either a crankshaft or a horizontal slide is used to control the opening and closing of the proper orifices in the meter. The sensor transmits a pulse train to a counter or flow controller. 19 Each PD design uses a different means of isolating and counting these volumes. Oscillating piston flow meters typically are used in viscous fluid services such as oil metering on engine test stands where turndown is not critical (Figure 3-2). While PD meters are operated by the kinetic energy of the flowing fluid, metering pumps (described only briefly in this article) determine the flow rate while also adding kinetic energy to the fluid. Automotive Oval Gear in-line mechanical flow meters use oval gear technology to accurately measure fluids with electronic field serviceable and replaceable registers. They can meter flow rates from 1 gpm to 65 gpm in continuous service with intermittent excursions to 100 gpm. Variable Area Meters Provide precise visual indication of rates of flow of air, liquids and industrial gases. The rate of flow is proportional to the rate of oscillation of the piston. If you want to learn more about positive displacement flow meter, read this article. Because the flow meter entraps a fixed quantity of fluid each time the spindle is rotated, the rate of flow is proportional to the rotational velocity of the spindle (Figure 3-1A). To minimize the pulsation, multiple pistons or pulsation-dampening reservoirs are installed. 4 The volumetric flow rate of the water is proportional to the rotational speed of the blades. Transducer Technology, established in 1983, are importers and distributors of a comprehensive range of electronic measuring … The disadvantage of m… As shown in Figure 3-4, measurement error rises as either the operating flowrate or the viscosity of the process fluid drops. Type / Size Range Technology / Function Flow Ranges smallest / largest Mechanical Meters: WM-PC: Plastic: NPT 1/2" to 1 1/2" Mechanical Totalizer Only: 1 to 15 gpm 8 to 120 gpm: WM-NLC: Lead Free Brass (NSF cert.) Two detectors are mounted a known distance (and therefore a known volume) apart. Figure 3-3: Click on figure to enlarge. The front one acts as a conditioner, directing the flow to the back rotor. Accuracy is not affected by pulsating flow unless it entrains air or gas in the fluid. they are machined from stainless steel hexagonal barstock. The tubing can be silicone-rubber or, if a more corrosion-resistant material is desired, PTFE tubing. Accuracy ranges from ±0.5 % AR for viscous fluids to ±2% AR for nonviscous applications. For liquid service, a servomotor-driven oval-gear meter equalizes the pressure across the meter. The linearity of a turbine meter is affected by the velocity profile (often dictated by the installation), viscosity, and temperature. Automatic meter reading (AMR) devices permit the remote retrieval of readings by utility personnel. Small amounts of air entrainment (100 mg/l or less) will make the meter read only a bit high, while large quantities can destroy the rotor. Varying the diameter and the shape of the jet orifice matches the required flow range and provides a flow meter that is accurate to 1% FS and has a rangeability of 100:1. The oval gear PD meter uses two fine-toothed gears, one mounted horizontally, the other vertically, with gears meshing at the tip of the vertical gear and the center of the horizontal gear (Figure 3-3A). ), Learning Instrumentation And Control Engineering, A Guide to Solar Panels Power Installations, How to Specify Electric Motors for Hazardous Locations, Understanding Battery Technical Specifications, Instrumentation Books for Instrument Engineers and Technicians, Sizing Orifice Plates with Daniel Flow Calculator. ), ( Some corrosion-resistant designs are made from plastic materials such as PVC. At lower flows and at lower viscosity, slippage increases and accuracy decreases to 0.5% AR or less. They are used as residential water meters around the world. All Rights Reserved. 6 Disadvantages of this design include a loss of accuracy at low flows. The accuracy of turbine meters is typically given in percentage of actual rate (% AR). In order to reduce this straight-run requirement, straightening vanes are installed. Paddlewheel flow meters use a rotor whose axis of rotation is parallel to the direction of flow (Figure 3-11B). Showing units in {{labelText}} Switch … The rotation of the vanes moves the flow increment from inlet to outlet and discharge. Most paddlewheel meters have flat-bladed rotors and are inherently bi-directional. 10 The meter consists of four chambers: the two diaphragm chambers on the inlet and outlet sides and the inlet and outlet chambers of the meter body. Therefore, the pressure drop across the meter limits the allowable maximum flow in high viscosity service. Positive displacement meters provide high accuracy (±0.1% of actual flow rate in some cases) and good repeatability (as high as 0.05% of reading). As each blade passes the coil, it generates a voltage pulse. Turbine rotation can be detected by solid state devices or by mechanical sensors. These meters must meet American Water Works Association (AWWA) standards for accuracy. We Provide Tools and Basic Information for Learning Process Instrumentation and Control Engineering. thick fluids such as glues and very viscous polymers. Small turbine meters often are called barstock turbines because in sizes of 3/4 in to 3 in. Density changes do not greatly affect turbine meters. Viscosity limits are 1 to 25,000 centipoise. Each meter applies to different applications. Turbine meters have a typical nonlinearity (the turbine meter hump, shown in Figure 3-9) in the lower 25-30% of their range. Trantech TTULF Ultrasonic Flow Meter ; Flow Meters - Batterry Operated ; Mechanical Flow Meters ; Turbine Flow Meters ; Mechanical Water Flow Meters; Ultrasonic Bulk Water Meters; AIR / GAS FLOW METERS. With liquids that do not lubricate well, maximum rotor speed must be derated to limit wear. Typical accuracy of an insertion turbine meter is 1% FS, and the minimum flow velocity is about 0.2 ft/sec. Under lower pressure conditions, typical rangeability is 20:1 with ±1% linearity. As each blade passes the coil, a voltage is generated ), ( Another way to limit wear is to keep the pressure drop across the meter below 15 psid. Because the lobe gears remain in a fixed relative position, it is only necessary to measure the rotational velocity of one of them. Because Hall-effect sensors have no magnetic drag, they can operate at lower flow velocities (0.2 ft/sec) than magnetic pick-up designs (0.5-1.0 ft/sec). The AWWA requires that residential water meters be re-calibrated every 10 years. AWWA Standard C-704 sets the accuracy criterion for propeller meters at 2% of reading. The mechanical types of water flow meters work by measuring the speed of water flowing through the pipe that causes a piston or turbine to rotate. This has made them extre… ), ( The two rotors rotate opposite to each other, creating an entrapment in the crescent-shaped gap between the housing and the gear. They are often used in large diameter pipelines where it would be cost-prohibitive to install a full size meter. Rotating lobe and impeller type PD meters are variations of the oval gear flow meter that do not share its precise gearing. As the bell is lowered, it discharges a known volume of gas through the meter being tested. The lobe gear meter is available in a wide range of materials of construction, from thermoplastics to highly corrosion-resistant metals. 22 These meters are used to meter paints and, because they are available in 3A or sanitary designs, also milk, juices, and chocolate. For paddle wheel flow meters the wheel blades are smaller in width compared to single jet flow meter and are only partially projected in the path of the flow. The wetted parts such as the disc and spindle are usually bronze, rubber, aluminum, neoprene, Buna-N, or a fluoroelastomer such as FKM. Propeller meters have a rangeability of about 4:1 and exhibit very poor performance if the velocity drops below 1.5 ft/sec. AIR / GAS FLOW METERS ; FLOW … ), ( Flow Meters and Environmental Sensors for Precision Fluid Measurement. Turbine flowmeters are commonly used to track total fuel gas (e.g. overflow:hidden; Turbine flow meters should be sized for between 3 and 5 psid pressure drop at maximum flow. whereas turbine meters intended for municipal water service are bronze or cast iron. These meters can be made out of a variety of metals, including stainless steel, and corrosion-resistant plastics such as PVDF (Kynar). Nutating disc meters are designed for water service and the materials of which they are made must be checked for compatibility with other fluids. The meter is constructed from aluminum castings with cloth-backed rubber diaphragms. Figure 3-10: Click on figure to enlarge. PD meters do not require a power supply for their operation and do not require straight upstream and downstream pipe runs for their installation. This permits a completely sealed register to be used with a mechanical drive mechanism. In addition, advances in fieldbus technology make it possible to recalibrate turbine flow meters continuously, thereby correcting for changes in temperature and viscosity. Mechanical Flow Metering ELSTER offers a wide range of different measurement devices for measurement of gas volume and gas flow. Therefore, it is necessary to re-calibrate the flow rating of the meter when it is used to meter other gases. The batching controller is set with the desired target volume and, when its totalizer has counted down to zero, it terminates the batch. Totalizers measure the cumulative flow volume. Water Meters Water Meters are sensors that indicate flow totalization of water. 2 1 These turbine meters use a gear train to convert the rotation of the rotor into the rotation of a vertical shaft. In the design of a turbine flowmeter, the diameter of the turbine rotor is very close to the inside diameter of the metering chamber, and its speed of rotation is. On the measuring chamber side, the vertical shaft turns a magnet instead of a gear. They are also simple and inexpensive, keeping costs low. NPT 1/2" to 2" Mechanical … Mechanical Flow meters Published April 17, 2019 Discussed in this chapter are various types of mechanical flow meters that measure flow using an arrangement of moving parts, either by … Other types of rotary element flow meters include propeller (impeller), shunt, and paddlewheel designs. Oscillating piston flow meters are available in 1/2-in to 3-in sizes, and can generally be used between 100 and 150 psig. flowmeter, digital, mechanical, w/standard rotor response with the standard rotor-threshold approximately 10cm/sec (1/5 knot). © 2009 - 2020 Tube bundles or radial vane elements are used as external flow straighteners located at least 5 diameters upstream of the meter (Figure 3-10). Because at maximum flow the pressure drop through the meter should not exceed 30 psid, the maximum rated flow through the meter is reduced as the fluid viscosity increases. It is possible, however, to register several K-factors for different portions of the flow range and to electronically switch from one to the other as the measured flow changes. Known for its excellent finishing … Keeping the minimum flow reading above this region will permit linearity to within 0.15% on small and 0.25% on larger turbine meters. Figure 3-6: Click on figure to enlarge. Flow Meters and Environmental Sensors for Precision Fluid Measurement. The diameter of the rotor is very close to the inside diameter of the metering chamber, and its speed of rotation is proportional to the volumetric flow rate. Repeatability is generally not greatly affected by changes in viscosity, and turbine meters often are used to control the flow of viscous fluids. These meters are accurate to 0.5% of rate if the viscosity of the process fluid is both high and constant, or varies only within a narrow band. Find a Distributor Contact Us 800-975-8153 . ), ( The accuracy of these meters is required to be ±2% of actual flow rate. This type of metering pump is used in laboratories, in a variety of medical applications, in the majority of environmental sampling systems, and also in dispensing hypochlorite solutions. Their operating flow range is from as low as 0.001 gpm to as high as 20,000 gpm. Specifications call for 10-15 diameters of straight run upstream and five diameters of straight run downstream of the meter. Similar to a pitot tube differential pressure flow meter, the insertion turbine meter is a point-velocity device. Maximum output pressure is about 125 psig. As the flow passes through the chamber, the displacer piston is moved downstream. Because they are very sensitive to the velocity profile of the flowing stream, they must be profiled at several points across the flow path. It consists of a multi-bladed rotor mounted at right angles to the flow and suspended in the fluid stream on a free-running bearing. Ultrasonic Bulk Water Meters. Dividing the volume of the chamber by the time it takes for the displacer to move from one detector to the other gives the calibrated flow rate. and larger and are accurate to ±2% over a range of 10:1. The number of pulses per unit volume is called the meter's K-factor. pipelines (6 in or larger) through a valving system without shutting down the process. Materials of construction include polypropylene, PVDF, TFE and PFA, brass, aluminum, and stainless steel. Such packages are equipped with dribble flow, pre-warn, or trickle-cut-off circuits. ), ( The turbine flow meter consists of a multi-bladed rotor mounted at right angles to the flow, suspended in the fluid stream on a free-running bearing. Check out this selection to find flow meters that can handle petroleum products, nonpotable water and compatible chemicals for fuel-dispensing pumps and industrial flow … Figure 3-9: Click on figure to enlarge. Propeller meters are commonly used in large diameter (over 4 in) irrigation and water distribution systems. Rotors are typically made of a non-magnetic material, like polypropylene, Ryton, or PVDF (Kynar). 32 When operating at elevated gas pressures (1,400 psig), a rangeability of 100:1 can be obtained in larger size meters. Also, the maximum flow through this meter is less than for the same size oscillatory piston or nutating disc meter. The passage of gas through the meter creates a differential pressure between the two diaphragm chambers by compressing the one on the inlet side and expanding the one on the outlet side. Mechanical Water Flow Meters. Vapor separators are usually included, to prevent vapor lock. Piston pumps are sized on the basis of the displacement of the piston and the required flow rate and discharge pressure. Most industrial turbine flow meters are manufactured from austenitic stainless steel (301, 303, 304SS), Higher accuracy can be achieved by calibrating the meter and by lowering its range. Hot water units are available up to 250°F. Dwyer water meters … This approach can provide high accuracy (up to ±0.01% of rate) but requires removing the flow meter from service. Accuracy of ±0.1% of actual rate (AR) is normal, and larger size meters on higher viscosity services can achieve accuracy to within 0.05% of rate.

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